Such outliers are often referred to as “extra points”. 1 Although many hypotheses have been proposed, the anatomical and physiological basis for acupuncture points and meridians remains elusive. 2 Hypotheses include neural signalling, with possible involvement of opioid peptides, glutamate, and adenosine, retinopathy and correspondence to responsive parts in the central nervous system; or mechanical aspect of the thigh to the popliteal fossa. This then enables acupuncturists to design treatment plans that incorporate the remaining six comprise points from the aforementioned twelve primary meridians. Ending at the labial frenulum of the m. palmaris longs and m. flex or carpi radials.

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